William Halse Rivers Rivers, M.D., F.R.S., President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, born 1864, died June 4th, 1922. By Alfred C. Haddon, Sc.D., F.R.S., and F. G. Bartlett, M.A., with a bibliography compiled by Ethel S. Fegan, Girton College, Cambridge.

By the death of our President, the Royal Anthropological Institute and the science of anthropology have suffered an irreplaceable loss, as Dr. Rivers was in the plenitude of his multifarious activities.

The bare facts of his career are as follows :—

Dr. Rivers was born in 1864 and educated at Tonbridge and at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital; he obtained the M.D. Lond. and the F.R.C.P., and was formerly Lecturer on Psychology at Guy’s Hospital. At the invitation of Sir Michael Foster he came to Cambridge in October, 1893, to lecture on the psychology of the senses, and was made University Lecturer in Physiological and Experimental Psychology in December, 1897, and was given the degree of M.A. honoris causa. The two subjects were separated in 1907, when Rivers was appointed Lecturer in the Physiology of the Senses; but some years before his death he resigned that post, and since then held no University appointment. He was made a Fellow of St. John’s College in 1902, and Praelector in Natural Sciences in 1919. He was appointed Croonian Lecturer to the Royal College of Physicians in 1906, and Fitzpatrick Lecturer in 1915-16. In 1908 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society, gained the Royal Medal in 1915, and served on the Council from 1917 to 1919. He was President of the Anthropological Section of the British Association in 1911, and of the Psychological Sub-section in 1919. During the war he served as Captain R.A.M.C., and was appointed Medical Officer, first at the Military Hospital, Maghull, then at Craiglockhart War Hospital, and finally Psychologist to the Central Hospital, Royal Air Force. Among other offices he also held that of President of the Folklore Society in 1920-21, and of the Anthropological Institute from January, 1921, to the time of his death. He was also an Hon. LL.D. of St. Andrews and D.Sc. of Manchester.

A perusal of the appended bibliography of his writings will indicate the amazing extent of the interests of our late President, and at the same time it shows that up to the last his outlook was continuously broadening, but not at the expense of thoroughness. Those who were in contact with Rivers during the last thirty years cannot have failed to notice how alive he was to the expanding range of anthropological studies, and that he took no narrow view of the scope of anthropology, but recognised, as most of us do, that, while for the pressing, immediate needs of the science it is necessary for us to study the vanishing customs of native races, our science has a yet wider mission. Present conditions are as much anthropological material as are ancient or savage conditions, and latterly Rivers was turning his. attention to these; to quote his own words : “the times are so ominous, the outlook for both our own country and the world so black, that if others think I can be of service in political life, I cannot refuse.”

Perhaps the keynote of Rivers was thoroughness. Keenness of thought and precision marked all his work. His constant aim was, by scientific exactitude and strict terminology, to stabilise nomenclature and to formulate method in order to make ethnology a scientific discipline; vague guesses and insufficiently supported hypotheses were abhorrent to him.

The turning point in his career came when, in 1898, as the head of the psychological section of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, he was first brought into contact with natives not far removed from savagery; going as a psychologist pure and simple, he returned an ethnologist as well, having laid the foundation of his genealogical method of investigation which has proved in his hands, and in those of others, a very valuable instrument for sociological investigations in the field. Thus equipped, a few years later he made an intensive study of the Todas of South India, and his book (1906) proved how immeasurably preferable scientific method was to ill-trained or untrained observations.

In 1908 Rivers made his first expedition to Melanesia, where, with Mr. A. M. Hocart, he did intensive work in the Western Solomons; at the same time Mr. G. C. Wheeler was working in the Shortland Islands in collaboration with Rivers. The publication of his monumental book “The History of Melanesian Society” (1914) marks an epoch in ethnological research and method. His clear analytical mind enabled him to unravel the genealogies and kinship terms in which he delighted, and from which he deduced systems of relationship previously unknown, and also to recover sociological conditions which have now passed away. He found that systems of relationship and many customs concerning marriage, descent and other social institutions, were remarkably permanent under a veneer of introduced civilisation, and that often really valuable data could be gleaned from the most unpromising places. He also showed how certain institutions and customs have arisen, or have been profoundly modified, by the result of interaction between peoples, and he established several cultural complexes in Melanesia which can be definitely assigned to various immigrant peoples. The ideas, customs, and material objects which he associated together were not merely assumed to be associated, but were proved to be so, as they were linked together in definite ceremonial institutions. This led him to consider the general effects of one culture upon another and the migration of cultures, and these brought him to the conclusion that certain conditions which had usually been regarded as due to social evolution were more probably cases of social adjustment between a pre-existing and an immigrant culture.

In 1914 Rivers made a second expedition to Melanesia, which was mainly of the nature of a survey, and he intended in the near future to make a third expedition to the same region in order to amplify material already gathered and to fill up lacunae. He had accumulated a considerable amount of information on the New Hebrides, a task in which he was being helped by various missionary and other friends, and we were looking forward to another memorable book on Melanesia which, alas ! can never be written.

Dr. Rivers had accepted an invitation to deliver a course of lectures on Social Anthropology at the University of Calcutta next winter. He always maintained a great interest in the sociology of India, to which subject he had made several important contributions.

In addition to his numerous publications, Rivers has left a number of more or less finished lectures and papers, which he intended to publish, and as far as possible this will be done.

In Rivers we possessed a rare combination of ability, erudition, and experience. He saw things so clearly in his own mind that at times he seemed somewhat impatient with those who thought differently from himself; but this was solely on account of his logical habit of thought and his zeal for scientific precision in description and theory. Those who have worked with him in the field cannot fail to have noticed how his patience and sympathetic manner with natives enabled him to gain information where another investigator might have failed. His great knowledge of psychology combined with a wide acquaintance with men in all stages of culture, together with his unlimited patience, broad sympathy, and charming manner rendered him peculiarly fitted for the delicate and highly important psycho-pathological work which he undertook during and immediately after the war. He never spared himself in this, or indeed in anything that he undertook. His success was very great, and his patients rightly regard him with intense gratitude and affection.

His numerous friends throughout the world will feel that by the death of Rivers they have lost a charming personality and a stimulating and bracing influence.    

A. C. HADDON.

Dr. Rivers’s psychological work fell naturally into three well-marked periods. Each period had its own dominant themes and purposes, but although these were different, they were in no way inconsistent. To himself, in fact, they appeared as one, and as the sustained expression of an absorbing interest in the study of man.

In 1897, partly in consequence of a movement set on foot twenty years earlier by Professor James Ward and Dr. Venn, he was appointed Lecturer in Experimental Psychology and later in the Physiology of the Senses in the University of Cambridge. This was the period of his experimental research. Throughout it was distinguished by a fidelity to the demands of experimental method very rare in the realms which he was exploring. His outstanding interest was in vision, and his article on that subject in Schäfer’s “Handbook of Physiology” still remains, from a psychological point of view, one of the best in the English language. To this period also belong his researches in connection with the Cambridge Expedition to the Torres Straits; his Croonian Lectures on the influence of drugs on fatigue; and, finally, much of the work done in conjunction with Dr. Henry Head on cutaneous sensibility. Already his attention was much occupied by problems of psycho-pathology, discussions of which formed a part of the course he offered to his students at Cambridge.

The amount and the value of this early experimental work have on the whole tended to be overlooked of late. In actual fact it was, as he himself often said, the foundation of all that came later.

Dr. Rivers’s next period was that of his preoccupation with ethnological and sociological problems. But though his attention now turned in a new direction, he took with him all of that interest in method and loyalty to its demands which he had learned in the psychological laboratory. His anthropological work was never merely antiquarian; always primarily directed by a desire to understand the life of man in society. And if the first period contributed a recognition of the supreme importance of exact method, the second period added enormous vitality to his work by bringing him into the closest possible touch with the actual daily behaviour of human beings.

Thus when the war broke out and Dr. Rivers offered his services to the country, he possessed all the equipment of the experimentalist’s love of exact method, together with the strongest possible bias never to lose connection with real life. His neurological work for officers and men, first at Maghull and Craiglockhart, and afterwards with the British Air Force, strengthened his realistic tendencies, and when, at the end of the war, he was able to turn his attention once more to problems of theoretical importance in psychology, his questions were not merely of the study and of the laboratory, but of real life, and his outlook was enormously widened by his sociological and neurological studies.

The last five years of his life were for Dr. Rivers a period of extraordinary activity. He published numerous papers, some ethnological, some neurological, some psychological; but all alike marked by originality of ideas and a new and brilliant incisiveness of expression. The old love of method showed itself in a great care for exactitude of phraseology and definition, while no problem was ever taken up which was not at once lifted out of the realm of mere academic discussion and related in the most intimate way to the everyday feelings, longings, and ideas of men. His book, “Instinct and the Unconscious” at once furnished a rare stimulus to discussion, and a starting point for many new lines of research.

But no record of his published books and papers, or of the many offices which he held, can ever adequately indicate even a small part of Rivers’s influence. His unbounded enthusiasm and vitality were particularly attractive to the young thought of Cambridge and of the many other centres in which he was well known. His remarkable influence as Praelector of Natural Sciences at St. John’s College; his lectures on dreams, as yet unpublished, given at the Cambridge Psychological Laboratory; his Sunday evening “squashes” for students; his latest work of all, the public lectures on social psychology—all alike were intensely invigorating.

They have gathered a band of young students who, if they are to carry out his own desire, will “push right through those lines of investigation which I shall never finish, but which I shall make it my business to begin.” To all of these Rivers will be always more than a writer and a thinker, he will be remembered also as a man and as the very best of friends.    

F. C. BARTLETT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

1888. A case of spasm of the muscles of the neck causing protrusion of the head. (St. Bart's Hosp. Repts., XXIV., pp. 249-51.)
1889. Abstract of paper on “Delirium and its allied conditions,” read before Abernethian Soc. (St. Bart's Hosp. Repts., XXV., pp. 279-80).
1891. A case of treadler’s cramp. (Brain, XIV., pp. 110-11).
1891. Abstract of paper on “Hysteria,” read before Abernethian Soc. (St. Bart's Hosp. Repts., XXVII., pp. 285-6.)
1893. Abstract of paper on “Neurasthenia,” read before Abernethian Soc. (St. Bart.'s Hosp. Repts., XXIX., p. 350).
1894. Review of O. Kulpe’s “Grundriss d. Psychologie auf experimenteller Grundlage dargestellt.” (Mind, N.S., III., pp. 413-17).
1895. Review of H. Maudsley’s “Pathology of Mind,” and E. Krapelin’s "Psychologische Arbeiten.” (Mind, N.S., IV., pp. 400-3).
1895. Paper on “Experimental psychology in relation to insanity,” read before the Medico-Psychol. Soc. G.B. & I. (Abstract in Lancet, LXXIII., p. 867).
1895. Review of T. Ziehen’s “Psychiatrie f. Aertze und Studierende.” (Brain, XVIII., pp. 418-21).
1895. On binocular colour mixture. (Proc. Gamb. Philos. Soc., VIII., pt. 5 pp. 273-7).
1896. On the apparent size of objects. (Mind, N.S., V., pp. 71-80).
1896. “Observations on mental fatigue and recovery,” paper read before the Medico-Psychol. Soc. G. B. & I. (Abstract in Lancet, LXXIV., p. 711).
1896. On mental fatigue and recovery. (J. Mental Science, XLII., pp. 525-9).
1896. Uber Ermudung und Erholung, with E. Krapelin. (Psychol. Arbeit, I., pp. 627-78).
1897. The photometry of coloured paper. (Journ. of Physiol., XXII., pp. 137-45).
1899. Contributions to comparative psychology from Torres Straits and New Guinea. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1899, p. 486, and J.B.A.I., N.S., II., pp. 219-222). (With W. McDougall and C. S. Myers).
1899. Two new departures in anthropological method. (Rep. Brit. Ass., pp. 789-90.)
1900. The senses of primitive man (Abstract in Science, N.S., XI., pp. 740-1, and trans. “Uber die Sinne d. primitiven Menschen” in Umschau, XXV.).
1900. “Textbook of physiology,” 6th ed. revd., Part IV., “ The Senses,” by Sir M. Poster, assisted by W. H. R. Rivers.
1900. Article on “Vision,” in Schafer’s “ Text-book of physiology.”
1900. A genealogical method of collecting social and vital statistics. (J.R.A.I., XXX., pp. 74-82).
1900. Report of Committee on mental and physical deviations from the normal among children in . . . schools (with others). (Rep. Brit. Ass., 1900, pp. 461-6).
1901. The measurement of visual illusion. (Rep. Brit. Ass., 1901, p. 818. Title only).
1901. Report of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, Vol. II., Physiology and Psychology, pt. I., Introductory, and Vision, pp. vi., 140. Cambridge.
1901. On erythropsia. (Trans. Ophthal. Soc. Lond., XXI., pp. 296-305).
1901. Primitive orientation. (Folk-Lore, XII., pp. 210-12).
1901. The colour vision of the Eskimo. (Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc., XI., pp. 143-9).
1901. Primitive colour vision. R. Inst. lect. (Pop. Fci. Mthly., LIX., pp. 44-58).
1901. Review of W. A. Nagel’s “Farbensinn d. Tiere.” (Brain, XXIV., pp. 663-4).
1901. Review of A. Lehmann’s “Korperliche Ausserungen psychischer Zustande.” (Mind, N.S., X., pp. 402-4).
1901. The colour vision of the natives of Upper Egypt. (J.A.I., XXXI., pp. 229- 47).
1901. Colour vision : reviews of Holden and Bosse’s “The order of development of colour perception and of colour preference in the child”; with notices of his own “Primitive colour vision” and “Colour vision of the Eskimo” (Man, I., pp. 107-9).
1901. On the function of the maternal uncle in Torres Straits; On the functions of the son-in-law and brother-in-law in Torres Straits. (Man, I., pp. 171-2.)
1902. Report of Committee on pigmentation survey of the schoolchildren of Scotland (with others). (Rep. Brit. Ass., 1902, pp. 352-3; 1903, p. 415.)
1902. Note on the sister’s son in Samoa. (Folk-Lore, XIII., p. 199.).
1903. Observations on the vision of the Uralis and Sholagas. (Madras Govt. Mus. Bull., V., pp. 1-16).
1903. Toda kinship and marriage; the Toda dairy. (Rep. Brit. Ass., 1903, pp. 810-12).
1903. The psychology and sociology of the Todas and the tribes of Southern India. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., LXXIII., pp. 415-16).
1903. The funeral of Sunerani. (Eagle, XXIV., pp. 337-43).
1904. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, V. : Genealogical tables; Kinship; Totemism (with A. C. Haddon); The regulation of marriage; Personal names.
1904. Note on R. C. Punnett’s “On the proportion of the sexes among the Todas.” (Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc., XII., pp. 487-8).
1904. Toda prayer. (Folk-Lore, XV., pp. 166-81).
1904. Some funeral customs of the Todas (title only); On the senses of the Todas. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1904, pp. 726, 749-50).
1904. Investigations of the comparative visual acuity of savages and of civilised people. (Brit. Med. J., 1904, II., p. 1297).
1904. “Acuite visuelle des peuples civilisees et des sauvages.” (Ann. d’Ocul., CXXXII., pp. 455- ).
1905. Observations on the senses of the Todas. (Brit. J. of Psych., I., pp. 321-96).
1905. The afferent nervous system from a new aspect; (with H. Head and J. Sherren). (Brain, XXVIII., pp. 99-115).
1906. The Todas. Map, illus., 22cm. London.
1906. Demonstration of new apparatus for psychological tests. (Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc., XIII., p. 392. Title only.)
1906. Report on the psychology and sociology of the Todas and other Indian tribes. (Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 77, pp. 239-41).
1906. The astronomy of Torres Straits Islanders; A survival of twofold origin. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1906, pp. 701-2).
1907. The marriage of cousins in India. (J. R. Asiatic Soc., pp. 611-40).
1907. Report of a Sub-Committee appointed to advise on the publication of a new edition of “Notes and Queries on Anthropology” (with others).
1907. The action of caffeine on the capacity for muscular work. (Journ. Physiol., XXXVI., pp. 34-47).
1907. On the Origin of the classificatory system of relationships. (Anthrop. Essays pres, to E. B. Tylor, pp. 309-23. Oxford.)
1907. Report of Committee on anthropometric investigation in the British Isles; (with others). (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1907, pp. 354-68).
1907. Morgan’s Malayan system of relationship; Some sociological definitions. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., LXXVII., p. 640, and pp. 653-5).
1907. Review of C. E. Jayne’s “String figures.” (Folk-Lore, XVIII., pp. 112-16).
1908. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, VI. (Eastern Islanders) : Genealogies; Kinship; Personal names; The regulation of marriage; Social organisation.
1908. The influence of alcohol and other drugs on fatigue. (Croonian Lects., R. Coll. Physicians, 1906). London : E. Arnold, pp. 144.
1908. A human experiment in nerve division; (with H. Head). (Brain, XXXI., pp. 323-450).
1908. The illusion of compared horizontal and vertical lines; (with G. D. Hicks), and The influence of small doses of alcohol on the capacity for muscular work (with H. N. Webber). (Brit. J. of Psychol., II., pp. 241-80).
1909. Review of B. Thomson’s “The Fijians.” (Folk-Lore, XX., pp. 252-5).
1909. “Some notes on magical practices in the Banks’ Islands,” a paper read before the Folklore Soc. (Folk-Lore, XXI., p. 2. Title only.).
1909. Totemism in Polynesia and Melanesia. (J. R. A. I., XXXIX., pp. 156-80).
1910. The genealogical method of anthropological inquiry. (Sociol. Review, III., pp. 1-12).
1910. French trans, of above. (Rev. d’Ethnogr. & de Sociol., Paris).
1910. The father’s sister in Oceania. (Folk-Lore, XXI., pp. 42-59).
1910. Report of Committee on establishment of a system of measuring mental characters; (with others). (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1910, p. 267).
1910. Kava-drinking in Melanesia. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1910, p. 734).
1910. The Solomon Island basket; (with Mrs. A. H. Quiggin). (Man, X., pp. 161-3).
1911. The ethnological analysis of culture. (Pres. Address to Section H. Brit. Assoc.). (Science, XXXIV., pp. 385-97; Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1911, pp. 490-9; Nature, LXXXVII., p. 356).
1911. Report of Committee on mental and physical factors involved in education; (with others). (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1911, pp. 177-214; 1912, pp. 327-38; 1913, pp. 302-5).
1912. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, IV., Astronomy.
1912. The disappearance of useful arts. (“Festskrift ... E. Westermarck,” Helsingfors, pp. 109- ). (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1912, pp. 598-9.).
1912. Island names in Melanesia. (Geog. Journ., pp. 458-68).
1912. Conventionalism in primitive art. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1912, p. 599).
1912. The sociological significance of myth. (Folk-Lore, XXIII., pp. 307-331).
1912. The primitive conception of death. (Hibbert J., X., pp. 393-407).
1912. Obituary notice of Andrew Lang. (Folk-Lore, XXIII., pp. 367-71).
1912. Articles on Methodology, Marriage, Relationship, Property and Inheritance in Part III., Sociology, of “ Notes and Queries on Anthropology,” 4th ed.
1913. Survival in sociology. (Sociol. Rev., VI., pp. 293-305).
1913. Report on anthropological research outside America. (Carnegie Inst, of Washington publns., 200).
1913. A gypsy pedigree and its lessons; (with G. Hall). (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1913, p. 625).
1913. Massage in Melanesia. (Paper read at the 17th Intemat. Congress of Medicine, sect, xxiii., pp. 39-42. Lond.)
1913. The bow in New Ireland. (Man, XIII., p. 54).
1913. The contact of peoples. (Essays . . . to W. Ridgeway, pp. 474-92. Cambridge).
1913. Sun-cult and megaliths in Oceania; R. Inst. lect. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1913, p. 634, and Amer. Anthrop., N.S., XVII., pp. 431-45).
1914. Notes on the Heron pedigree. (Gypsy Lore Soc., VII., pp. 88-104).
1914. The history of Melanesian society. (Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to Melanesia, 2 vols. Cambridge).
1914. Kinship and social organisation. (Studies in Economic and Political Science, No. 36).
1914. Kin, Kinship. (Hastings’ “Enc. Religion and Ethics,” VII., pp. 700-7).
1914. Is Australian culture simple or complex? Gerontocracy and marriage in Australia. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1914, pp. 529-32).
1915. Descent and ceremonial in Ambrim. (J. R. A. I., XLV., pp. 229-33).
1915. Review of Prof. G. Elliot Smith’s “The migrations of early culture.” (J. Egyptian Archceol., II., pp. 256-7).
1915. The boomerang in the New Hebrides. (Man, XV., pp. 106-8).
1915. Melanesian gerontocracy. (Man, XV., pp. 145-7).
1915. Marriage (Introductory and Primitive); Mother-right (in Hastings’ “Enc. Religion and Ethics,” VIII., pp. 423-32, 851-9).
1916. Medicine, magic, and religion. (Fitzpatrick Lects. 1915). (Lancet, XCIV., pp. 59-65, 117-23).
1916. Irrigation and the cultivation of taro. (Nature, XCVII., p. 514, and Abst. in Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc. Mem. and Proc., LX., pp. xliv.-v., 1917.)
1916. Sociology and psychology. (Sociol. Rev., IX., pp. 1-13).
1917. Freud’s psychology of the unconscious. Paper read at the Edinburgh Pathological Club, Mar. 7, 1917. (Lancet, XCV., pp. 912-14).
1917. A case of claustrophobia’. (Lancet, XCV., pp. 237-40).
1917. Medicine, magic, and religion. (Fitzpatrick Lects.). (Lancet, XCV., pp. 919-23, 959-64).
1917. New Britain, New Ireland, New Caledonia, New Hebrides. (Hastings’ “Enc. Religion and Ethics,” IX., pp. 336-9, 352-5).
1917. Dreams and primitive culture. (Bull. J. Rylands Library, IV.).
1917. The government of subject peoples. (“Science and the Nation,” ed. A. C. Seward, pp. 302-328).
1918. The repression of war experience. Paper read before the Section of Psychiatry, R. Soc. Medicine, Dec. 1917. (Lancet, XCVI., pp. 173-77).
1918. Psycho-therapeutics. (Hastings’ “Enc. Religion and Ethics,” X., pp. 433-40).
1918. War neurosis and military training. (Mental Hygiene, II., pp. 513-33).
1918. Maori burial chests. (Man, XVIII., p. 97).
1918. Why is the “unconscious” unconscious ? (Brit. J. Psychol., IX., pt. 2, pp. 236-46). 
1919. Psychology and medicine. (Pres. Address Medical Section, Brit. Psychol. Soc.). (Lancet, XCVII., pp. 889-92).
1919. Mind and medicine. (Bull. J. Bylands Library, V.).
1919. Psychiatry and the War. (Science, N.S., XLIX., pp. 367-9).
1919. Review of C. Wissler’s “The American Indian.” (Man, XIX., pp. 75-6).
1919. Psychology and the War; Pres, address to Brit. Assoc., Sub-Section Psychology. (Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1919, p. 313. Title only.).
1920. Studies in neurology (with H. Head and others). Oxford Medical publns. 2vols. 1920 Anthropology and the missionary. (Church Miss. Review, Sept.).
1920. Instinct and the unconscious. 1st edit. Cambridge.
1920. The dying-out of native races. (Lect. at R. Inst. Public Health, May, 1918). (Lancet, XCVIII., pp. 42-4, 109-11).
1920. The concept of soul-substance in New Guinea and Melanesia. (Folk-Lore, XXXI., pp. 48-69).
1920. Freud’s conception of the censorship. (Psycho-analytic Rev., VII., 3).
1920. History and ethnology. (History, N.S., V., pp. 65-80).
1920. Ships and boats; Solomon Islands. (Hastings’ 44 Enc. Religion and Ethics,” XI., pp. 471-4, 680-5).
1920. Review of Mrs. Scoresby Routledge’s “The mystery of Easter Island.” (Folk-Lore, XXXI., pp. 82-7).
1920. Review of R. H. Lowie’s “Primitive society.” (Amer. Anthrop., XXII., pp. 278-83).
1920. The statues of Easter Island. (Folk-Lore, XXXI., pp. 294-306).
1920. Instinct and the unconscious. (Brit. J. of Psychol., X., pp. 1-7).
1920. Psychology and medicine. (Brit. J. of Psychol., X., pp. 183-93).
1921. The origin of hypergamy. (J. Bihar and Orissa Besearch Soc., Patna, VII., pp. 9-24).
1921. Conservatism and plasticity. (Pres. Address to the Folk-Lore Soc.). (Folk- Lore, XXXII., pp. 10-27).
1921. Affect in the dream. (Brit. J. Psychol., XII., pp. 113-24).
1921. Kinship and marriage in India. (Man in India, I., pp. 6-10. Ranchi).
1921. The Todas. (Hastings’ “ Enc. Religion and Ethics,” XII., pp. 354-7).
1922. Instinct and the unconscious. 2nd edit. Cambridge.
1922. Psycho-neurotic symptoms associated with miners’ nystagmus. (Medical Research Council: Special Report Series, 65, pp. 60-64).
1922. Methods of dream analysis. (Brit. J. Psychol., Medical Section II., pt. 2, pp. 101-108).
1922. The symbolism of rebirth. (Pres. Address to Folk-Lore Soc.). (Folk-Lore, XXXIII., pp. 14-33).
1922. (In the press). The psychological factor. (Essays on the depopulation of Melanesia, ed. W. H. R. R., pp. 83- . Cambridge).
1922. (In the press). History and Ethnology, with bibliography. (Helps for Students of History, No. 48, S.P.C.K., Lond.).
1922. (In the press). The relation of complex and sentiment. (Brit. J. Psychol., XIII.)

ETHEL S. FEGAN.

This obituary first appeared as: Haddon, Alfred C., Bartlett, F. C. & Fegan, Ethel S.. 1922. 'William Halse Rivers Rivers, M.D., F.R.S., President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Born 1864, Died June 4th, 1922'. Man Vol. 22, pp. 97-104. Reproduced with permission.

 

To cite this article:

HADDON, ALFRED C., BARTLETT, F. C. & FEGAN, ETHEL S.. 1922. 'William Halse Rivers Rivers, M.D., F.R.S., President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Born 1864, Died June 4th, 1922'. (available on-line: http://www.therai.org.uk/archives-and-manuscripts/obituaries/william-halse-rivers-rivers).